Testosterone, also called the male sex hormone, is synthesized within the testicles in males and the ovaries in females. In addition, smaller amounts are secreted from the adrenal cortex. Testosterone is important in the growth and development of males, particularly after puberty. In females, testosterone is produced in low amounts and contributes primarily to hair growth.
In males, testosterone production starts during fetal life and stops after birth. The levels begin to rise abruptly at puberty, reaching peak testosterone levels at adolescence. After that, the levels become approximately constant and then, during the 30s, the level begins to decline. The gradual decrease continues in old age, but the production never stops.
Here in this article, we will provide you with precise information on the functions of testosterone, the effects of low testosterone levels and how the levels can be restored by using testosterone supplements.
Functions of testosterone
In addition to regulation of sexual development, the testosterone also has other beneficial effects on the body which include:Development of facial and body hair. Testosterone contributes to hair thickening and proliferation.
- Deepening of voice in men. This contributes to the hoarseness of voice after puberty.
- Testosterone contributes to increased muscle mass and improving muscle strength.
- Increased sexual drive and sexual function(1).
- Development and thickening of bones
- Mood improvement as testosterone stimulates the brain areas involved in mood elevation.
- Increases the red blood cell production and improves the functioning of heart.
Causes of low testosterone level
The main cause of low testosterone levels in men over 50 is an age-related deterioration of hypothalamic-pituitary function and Leydig cells of the testes that produce the testosterone (2). This process is known as late-onset hypogonadism. This condition is more common in people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese.
Moreover, some persons have an inborn deficiency of testosterone due to the following conditions:
- Noonan syndrome
- Klinefielter syndrome
- Atypical genitalia
Some men may develop low T levels due to:
- Injury to testicles such as due to accident
- Effect of chemotherapy or radiation
- Pituitary gland disease
- Stress or alcohol abuse
In all of these conditions the use of testosterone supplement is very beneficial and crucial in case of late-onset hypogonadism.
Effects of low testosterone
There is a physiological decrease in the testosterone levels in the body after adolescence. The decrease in the levels is gradual and is partly responsible for age related changes in the body. Some of the symptoms of low testosterone levels are:
- Decreased sexual drive: Testosterone is essential for normal sex drive also known as libido. Those who have low testosterone level have low sex drive and sexual performance.
- Erectile dysfunction(3): Testosterone is necessary to achieve and maintain the erection. It binds to receptors in the brain and causes the release of a chemical, nitric oxide. It causes vasodilation and improves blood flow. When testosterone level is low the erection is delayed.
- Loss of muscle mass: Testosterone increases the muscle mass by increasing the protein synthesis therefore low testosterone levels may lead to loss of muscle mass and increase in fat content of the body.
- Decreased bone mass: The age related low testosterone levels lead to decrease in bone strength and low bone volume due to decreased protein synthesis making bones more susceptible to damage.
- Low energy and fatigue: The decline in testosterone level causes extreme fatigue, decrease in vigor and energy despite having a normal diet and sleep.
- Thinning of hair and hair loss
Importance of testosterone in men over 40
In old age, the levels of testosterone show a progressive decline which is in part responsible for age-related changes. You can delay or prevent the occurrence of these changes by administration of testosterone injections or using testosterone supplements. Some of the beneficial effects of testosterone in old age include:
With increasing age, degenerative changes take place in the connective tissues underlying the skin. This contributes to the formation of facial wrinkles and loosening of skin in various other parts of the body. Testosterone prevents these degenerative changes from occurring and reduces facial wrinkling.
Muscle mass and strength
Loss of muscle mass and muscle strength is another important problem with increasing age. Testosterone contributes to development of muscles and increases muscular strength. Regular exercise and testosterone consumption can improve your muscular performance. The bodybuilders also use testosterone injections to improve their muscular performance.
In old age, bone changes also occur leading to bone weakening. The person complains of lethargy, weakness and fatigue. Testosterone maintains the bone structure and contributes to strengthening of bones.
Cardiovascular problems are very common among people over 40 years of age. Old age people are at greater risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiac abnormalities like myocardial infarction. Testosterone increases the RBCs count(4), improves the blood flow, lowers cholesterol levels and also improves the functioning of the heart
The main sexual function of testosterone in male is to regulate the timing of erectile process. However, testosterone therapy can only be useful in the men who have low testosterone levels, such as due to age-related decline in testosterone levels. Similarly those who have impaired sexual desire and delayed ejaculation due to low testosterone levels can be treated by testosterone therapy.
There is decrease in cerebral blood perfusion due to age-related decline of testosterone. Similarly the low T level can lead to neuronal damage and leads to Alzhiemer’s disease and mild cognitive dysfunction (MCD). Testosterone medication can therefore improve the neural function, improves the cognitive function, and increases cerebral blood perfusion.
You can see that low testosterone increases the incidence of certain disorders and has bad effects on your body. To boost up your testosterone levels in old age, various testosterone supplements are available in the market. We provide you with the best testosterone booster: Gaspari Ageless Vitality Booster. This supplement is best for restoring testosterone levels back to normal in people over 40. It enhances your testosterone levels and improves muscular performance, bone strength, improve sexual drive and mood. Regular exercise in the gym and this T booster proves very effective in preventing age -related degenerative changes due to low testosterone.
- Isidori, Andrea M., et al. “Effects of Testosterone on Sexual Function in Men: Results of a Meta-Analysis.” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 63, no. 4, Oct. 2005, pp. 381–394, 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2005.02350.x. Accessed 17 Aug. 2019.
- Golan, Ron, et al. “Age-Related Testosterone Decline Is due to Waning of Both Testicular and Hypothalamic-Pituitary Function.” The Aging Male, vol. 18, no. 3, 15 June 2015, pp. 201–204, 10.3109/13685538.2015.1052392.
- Diaz-Arjonilla, M, et al. “Obesity, Low Testosterone Levels and Erectile Dysfunction.” International Journal of Impotence Research, vol. 21, no. 2, 9 Oct. 2008, pp. 89–98, 10.1038/ijir.2008.42.
- Beggs, Luke A., et al. “Testosterone Alters Iron Metabolism and Stimulates Red Blood Cell Production Independently of Dihydrotestosterone.” American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 307, no. 5, 1 Sept. 2014, p. E456, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4154071/, 10.1152/ajpendo.00184.2014. Accessed 2 Dec. 2020.